Three agricultural development strategies are discussed in this study, to illustrate the significance of the gender dimension in promoting improved nutrition and health: (1) linking smallholders to markets, (2) large-scale agriculture, and (3) homestead food production. A key gender-related factor that affects the impact of agricultural interventions on nutrition is whether the agricultural intervention enhances women’s control over assets. As agricultural productivity increases and surplus food is marketed, the distinc¬tion between food and cash crops at the household level will tend to erode. Two areas are likely to be of concern: (1) at the national or aggregate level, the balance between food and cash crops, as biofuels (for example) and food crops compete for scarce farmland; and (2) at the household level, the control over income derived from various crops. In any production or employment scenario, however, the available evidence indicates that increasing women’s access to resources and control over household income will have important implications for the health and nutrition of the family, and particularly of women and children. From the perspective of nutrition and some aspects of health, therefore, any development strategy should explicitly consider its impacts on women and children.