Although a number of studies have taken place into the ecosystem effects of fires on forests, few have looked their biodiversity implications. The authors briefly outline ecosystem impacts of fires on a global, regional and local level. They then consider impacts on plant life, noting that in forests not adapted to fire, it can kill virtually all seedlings, sprouts, lianas and young trees because they are not protected by thick bark. Damage to the seed bank, seedlings and saplings hinders recovery of the original species. Impacts on fauna that have occurred as a result of non-natural fire (that is human-induced or caused by extreme weather conditions such as El Niño) can be devastating for forest vertebrates and invertebrates - not only killing them directly, but also leading to longer-term indirect effects such as stress and loss of habitat, territories, shelter and food. The loss of key organisms in forest ecosystems, such as invertebrates, pollinators and decomposers, can significantly slow the recovery rate of the forest . The paper ends by noting that where natural forest fire regimes have been suppressed, the negative impacts for biodiversity can also be catastrophic.