The Komati Basin Water Authority (KOBWA) was established under the terms of the Treaty on the Development and Utilisation of the Water Resources of the Komati River Basin, signed in 1992 between the Republic of South Africa and the Kingdom of Swaziland. KOBWA was established to implement Phase 1 of the Komati River Basin Development Project com-prising of the Driekoppies Dam on the Lomati River in South Africa (Sub-phase 1a) and the Maguga Dam on the Komati River in Swaziland (Sub-phase 1b). The aim of the project is to stabilize river flows in the Komati River and to provide water storage for existing and new developments. In implementing Phase 1 of the Project, KOBWA had to address the issues raised-above, and in particular to ensure that all those affected by the developments are left “better off” than they were prior to project implementation. The purpose of the KOBWA case study is to document the knowledge and experience of water resource infrastructure development projects and highlight the key lessons learnt.